Query Syntax

The following outlines the query syntax which may be used to retrieve information from the knowledgebase and/or knowledgegraph. Please direct all questions, comments or suggestions to: support@ingentium.com

Grid Control

  • By default, the grid will contain the last 100 items added to the knowledgebase or knowledgegraph.

  • Selecting the Actions Pulldown menu (Reset Grid) will reset the grid to the last 100 items added the knowledgebase.

  • Selecting the Actions Pulldown menu (Clear Grid) will remove all data from the grid.

  • Grid items may be sorted and manipulated using Excel-like functions in each column header.

  • To view information for an item, simply select and use the Actions pulldown (Evidence Information). You may also double-click the item on the grid. A new window or tab will appear.

  • To view similar evidence, simple select a grid item and the use the Actions pulldown (Similar Evidence). The grid will be updated to show the similar data with the selected evidence item as the first item on the grid.

Specifying Search Terms

A query may be broken up into terms and operators. There are two types of terms: single terms and phrases.

  • A single term is a single word such as "nuclear" or "receptor"
  • A phrase is a group of words surrounded by double quotes such as "nuclear receptor"

Multiple terms can be combined together with Boolean operators to form more complex queries.

Wildcard Searches

Wildcard Search Type Special Character Example
Single character (matches a single character) ? The search string te?t would match both test and text
Multiple characters (matches zero or more sequential characters) * The wildcard search: tes* would match test, testing, and tester. You can also use wildcard characters in the middle of a term. For example: te*t would match test and text. *est would match pest and test

Boolean Search Operators

Boolean operators allow you to apply Boolean logic to queries, requiring the presence or absence of specific terms or conditions in fields in order to match documents. The table below summarizes the Boolean operators supported by the standard query parser. (in this case the text field).
Boolean Operator Alternative Symbol Description
AND && Requires both terms on either side of the Boolean operator to be present for a match
NOT ! Requires that the following term not be present
OR || Requires that either term (or both terms) be present for a match
+ Requires that the following term be present
- Prohibits the following term (that is, matches on fields or documents that do not include that term). The - operator is functionally similar to the Boolean operator !
Boolean operators allow terms to be combined through logic operators. The system supports AND, "+", OR, NOT and "-" as Boolean operators.

When specifying Boolean operators with keywords such as AND or NOT, the keywords must appear in all uppercase.

The OR operator is the default conjunction operator. This means that if there is no Boolean operator between two terms, the OR operator is used. The OR operator links two terms and finds a matching document if either of the terms exist in a document. This is equivalent to a union using sets. The symbol || can be used in place of the word OR.

The default Boolean operator is OR. To search for documents that contain either "nuclear receptor" or just "receptor," use the query:

or

The Boolean Operator +

The + symbol (also known as the "required" operator) requires that the term after the + symbol exist somewhere in a field in at least one document in order for the query to return a match. For example, to search for documents that must contain "nuclear" and that may or may not contain "receptor," use the following query:

The Boolean Operator AND (&&)

The AND operator matches documents where both terms exist anywhere in the text of a single document. This is equivalent to an intersection using sets. The symbol && can be used in place of the word AND. To search for documents that contain "nuclear receptor" and "protein binding," use either of the following queries:

or

The Boolean Operator NOT (!)

The NOT operator excludes documents that contain the term after NOT. This is equivalent to a difference using sets. The symbol ! can be used in place of the word NOT. The following queries search for documents that contain the phrase "nuclear receptor" but do not contain the phrase "protein binding":

or

The Boolean Operator -

The - symbol or "prohibit" operator excludes documents that contain the term after the - symbol. For example, to search for documents that contain "nuclear receptor" but not "protein binding," use the following query:

Escaping Special Characters

The following characters special meaning when they appear in a query:

To interpret any of these characters literally, rather as a special character, precede the character with a backslash character \. For example, to search for (1+1):2 without interpreting the plus sign and parentheses as special characters for formulating a sub-query with two terms, escape the characters by preceding each one with a backslash:

Grouping Terms to Form Sub-Queries

Querying supports using parentheses to group clauses to form sub-queries. This can be very useful if you want to control the Boolean logic for a query. The query below searches for either "nuclear" or "receptor" and "protein":

This adds precision to the query, requiring that the term "protein" exist, along with either term "nuclear" and "receptor."

Grouping Clauses within a Field

To apply two or more Boolean operators to a single field in a search, group the Boolean clauses within parentheses. For example, the query below searches for a title field that contains both the word "nuclear" and the phrase "protein binding":